Treatment of dengue | Definition,cause,symptom and treatment of dengue

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Dengue! What Is It? Treatment of dengue

Dengue is an infectious viral disease that can have serious complications. Dengue fever is a potentially serious viral infectious disease, particularly in its hemorrhagic form seen primarily in children.

It is one of the vector-borne diseases, that is, transmitted to humans by a hematophagous insect (which feeds on blood). Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that its frequency has increased dramatically over the past decades: it has been multiplied by 30 since the 1960s.

This development coincides with the geographical extension of its main vector. And the co-circulation of many stereotypes of the virus increases the risk of repeated and severe infections.

The increase in the world population and the rural exodus is also involved in this phenomenon.

Currently, it is estimated that around 2.5 billion people (two-fifths of the world’s population) are at risk of dengue. According to current WHO estimates, there could be 50 to 100 million cases worldwide each year. With 250,000 to 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and 24,000 deaths. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

What transmission of Dengue? Treatment of dengue

Dengue virus spread through a mosquito bite

The vector of dengue is a mosquito of the Aides family, mainly Aides ægypti, but also other species such as Aides albopictus . Only female mosquitoes transmit the disease.

They become infected by biting a human carrying the virus which they then inoculated into other humans.

Unlike mosquitoes that carry malaria, Aedes:

  1. Sting during the day.
  2. Fly with little noise.
  3. Their sting is noticeable and causes local inflammation.
  4. They live in rural as well as peri-urban and urban areas and breed in places containing stagnant water. Such as old tires or abandoned cans, tree holes, cisterns, terracotta jars. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

What Geographical Distribution of dengue? Treatment of dengue

Dengue is a cosmopolitan disease that rages in the tropics and subtropics of more than one hundred countries. Two continents are particularly affected: Asia and Latin America.

The number of cases in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific exceeded 1.2 million in 2008 and 2.3 million in 2010. Recently, the number of reported cases has continued to increase.

In 2013, the Americas region alone reported 2.35 million cases, including 37,687 cases of severe dengue. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Among the regions of this continent affected by sometimes, significant epidemics are, among others. The French departments are located in the Caribbean (Antilles and Guyana).

The French territories in the South Pacific (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis, and Futuna) are also concerned.

The InVS notes that in Asia, dengue fever is endemic or hyper-epidemic in seventeen countries. In Africa, epidemics have been reported in a few countries such as Cape Verde, Comoros, and Gabon.

The identification of cases imported by travelers. Those who have stayed in different regions of Africa testifies to the circulation of the dengue virus on this continent. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Finally, since 2010, a few cases of indigenous transmission of dengue have also been reported in European countries. As of October 17, 2014, 4 indigenous cases of dengue. That appeared between May and October and was confirmed by the National Arbovirus Reference Center in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region.

Does Dengue Exist In Europe? Treatment of dengue

The European Center for Disease Prevention. And Control (ECDC) points out that the last dengue epidemic in Europe dates from 1927-1928. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

It had affected Greece and caused many deaths. The main vector of infection, Aedes ægypti, was eradicated from the continent at the turn of the 1950s. If dengue has not disappeared from the continent, at present, the cases diagnosed are almost always imported cases. Either 485 of the 489 cases of dengue were reported in 2008 by eleven countries (out of twenty-one). Or 4 of the 150 cases of dengue recorded in France between May and December 2014.

The imported cases concern people who have stayed most frequently in South-East Asia or the Indian subcontinent. But also, more and more often, in Latin America and the Caribbean and more rarely in Africa.

The European network for the surveillance of imported infectious diseases. Trop NetEurop, warns against the risk of reintroduction of dengue fever. Southern Europe is linked to the presence of a few populations of vector mosquitoes in certain areas. And of infected travelers during a stay in an endemic area. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Its members indicate that Aedes albopictus has been found as far as the south of France.

What Risk of dengue In Mainland France? Treatment of dengue

Since the mid-2000 s. The Aedes albopictus mosquito has taken root in eighteen departments in mainland France south of the Loire and Garonne rivers. Hence the fear of seeing cases of dengue emerge from local mosquitoes having been infected by infected travelers. Who still harbored the virus in their blood on their return. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Dengue was therefore included on the list of modifiable diseases in 2006. In 2009, the health authorities set up an anti-dissemination plan for dengue and chikungunya in mainland France.

This plan establishes close monitoring of Aedes albopictus in the departments concerned. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

How Does The dengue Disease Start? Treatment of dengue

The dengue virus is a Flavivirus of which four types are known.

The four types of the dengue virus are DEN-1, -2, -3, and -4.

These different types can circulate at the same time in the same region.

When the virus is inoculated in humans by the mosquito bite. It passes into the bloodstream and enters the blood cells where it multiplies. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

The phase during which it persists in the blood or viremia. Lasts from two days to a week and corresponds roughly to the period of fever. During this period, if the patient is bitten by a mosquito, it becomes contaminating.

The presence of the virus in the body causes the production of specific antibodies. These antibodies confer definitive immunity, but only against the type of virus involved. Not against others against which protection is only partial and temporary. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

If a person who is already immune to one of the viral types is exposed to another type. They are more likely to have dengue hemorrhagic fever.

What are the symptoms of dengue? Treatment of dengue

In the majority of infected people (40 to 75% of cases), dengue fever remains silent (asymptomatic). Therefore going unnoticed, or gives few symptoms. When the disease occurs, it most often presents in its classic form with a slight fever. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Classic dengue:

The signs appear five to eight days after the infecting mosquito bite. They look like the flu.

What are the symptoms of the flu?

The patient suddenly presents with a high fever with chills, headache in the forehead. Retro-orbital pain (behind the eye sockets), muscle pain (myalgia) and joint pain (arthritis), nausea, vomiting. In half of the cases, these signs are associated with a rash made up of flat lesions (molecules) or raised (papules). Spontaneous recovery, with a resolution of fever and pain, usually occurs within a few days. But the patient remains tired for several weeks.

Dengue hemorrhagic fever:

In a few cases, mainly in children, dengue fever worsens suddenly. During the first week and progresses to a hemorrhagic form.

In addition to fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting, multiple hemorrhages appear on the skin, mucous membranes, and digestive tracts.

The patient’s general condition deteriorates with a risk of developing cardiovascular shock syndrome, the outcome of which can be fatal.

Dengue what Exams to Do?  Treatment of dengue

The diagnosis of dengue fever is confirmed by the demonstration in the blood. The virus (biological examination) or of its DNA (PCR technique) during the first five days of the disease or of specific antibodies (serology) which appear five days after the onset of the disease. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

What Is The Treatment of dengue?

There is no specific antiviral treatment for dengue fever. Patients therefore only benefit from symptomatic treatment intended to combat fever, muscle pain, and headaches, and to prevent dehydration.

Bed rest is generally advised. Aspirin should be avoided, which may worsen the bleeding manifestations, as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the event of dengue hemorrhagic fever, hospitalization in intensive care is necessary. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

What Prevention in Endemic Areas of dengue

Since there is no vaccine, the best way to protect you is to avoid mosquito bites. There is no effective vaccine against dengue fever.

Therefore, mosquito elimination and personal protection against their bites are the main means of controlling dengue fever in endemic areas.

This so-called anti-vector control makes it possible to reduce the transmission of the disease. It requires the education of the population.

Mosquitoes can be eliminated by removing their breeding sites by various methods:

  1. Storage of domestic water in closed containers
  2. Regular spraying of insecticides on breeding sites
  3. Possibly, biological control by the introduction of small fish and small crustaceans. Which are natural predators of mosquitoes whose larvae they eat. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Dengue: What Prevention for the Traveler? Treatment of dengue 

In France, recommendations for the prevention of vector-borne diseases are disseminated. Every year to healthcare professionals by the Committee on travel-related and import diseases (CMVI). Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

  1. For dengue, they are mainly based on protection against mosquito bites. This personal anti-vector protection involves the use of clothing impregnated with insecticides and skin repellents.
  2. For young children (before the age of walking), experts advise providing cribs and strollers with insecticide-treated mosquito nets.

Useful means

  1. Evacuation of stagnant water.
  2. The spray of “bombs” insecticides in homes.
  3. The use of electric insecticide diff users outdoors.
  4. The installation of mosquito screens on doors and windows.

Unnecessary means

  1. Ultrasonic sound devices.
  2. Anti-insect bracelets.
  3. Vitamin B1.
  4. Homeopathy.
  5. Electric snowshoes.
  6. Sticky tapes, papers, and stickers without insecticide.

Likewise, ventilation and air conditioning alone are insufficient to provide effective protection. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Dengue: Which Skin Repellents Should I Use? 

Repellents can be applied to exposed skin areas or to clothing. These should be used in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

It is useful to seek the advice of a pharmacist in order to choose a suitable and effective product against Aedes.

Essential oils should not be used to protect against mosquito bites (allergic and photosensitizing risks).

People who want to use sunscreen should wait twenty minutes before applying the repellent.

Breastfeeding women can use this type of product. As long as they do not apply any to their breasts and wash them before breastfeeding their baby. In children, skin repellents can be used from the age of six months.

In younger babies as in pregnant women, it is recommended to favor mosquito nets impregnated with insecticides. Read more about the treatment of dengue. 

Dengue: Which Specialty Concerned?

Infectious and tropical diseases

Most often carried out in the hospital. This specialty studies and takes care of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. Bacteria (tuberculosis, skin infections), viruses (AIDS, hepatitis), and fungi (mycoses), parasites (malaria). Most of these diseases exist in mainland France, but they are even more present in tropical environments.

Today, with the increase in travel and due to climate changes, tropical diseases are more and more frequent in hospitals.

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