Risk factors of diabetes mellitus and treatment of diabetes mellitus

Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

Do you want to know about risk factors of diabetes mellitus? Read this article and get knowledge Risk factors of diabetes mellitus.

There is no single cause for type 2 diabetes. But rather a grouping of factors that increase the risk of developing the disease.

Here are the most common risk factors for type 2 diabetes:

  • Gender: men are more vulnerable than women;
  • Age: the risk increases as we get older;
  • Excess weight;
  • The high waist circumference, that is to say the fat accumulated around the abdomen;
  • The level of physical activity and eating habits;
  • The blood pressure ;
  • Abnormally high blood sugar levels in the past;
  • For women, having given birth to a baby weighing more than 4.1 kg (9 pounds);
  • Heredity;
  • Ethnic origin: indigenous, African, Asian, Latin American, etc.
  • The level of education.

More Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

When there is no more insulin to get glucose into cells, the body can no longer use it for energy. Instead, it uses fatty acids, producing acetone, which acidifies the blood and poisons the brain. It’s ketoacidosis.

The signs preceding the coma are more marked dehydration , intensifying stomach aches (suspected appendicitis), noisy breathing and disturbances in consciousness . Ketoacidosis coma is treated with rehydration and insulin intake. If it continues, it can lead to death.

Ketoacidosis coma reveals 10% of type 1 diabetes or, much more rarely, type 2 diabetes. It can also occur when stopping insulin therapy. It should not be confused with hypoglycemic coma which is on the contrary preceded by a drop in blood sugar.

Typically, the child may resume bedwetting after being clean and have eyes darkened with fatigue and dehydration. The adult also complains of being dehydrated. On a forum, Swoon recounts that at the time of the diagnosis. He was drinking 5 to 7 liters of water per day. Had a constantly dry and mushy mouth, very violent cramps and a enormous fatigue.

Regarding risk factors, they are still poorly understood. Professor Gautier reminds that diet and a sedentary lifestyle are not in question. Moreover, the weight of genetics remains relatively low. “The child of an affected parent has a 3% risk of being affected also if it is his mother, 5 to 7% if it is his Father. In 85% of cases, there is no family history. ”

What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease that cannot be cured, but can be treated and controlled. It is caused by not using or not using a hormone called insulin. Normally, insulin allows cells to use sugar for energy. In people with diabetes, this function is affected. Which leads to an increase in the level of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia). In other words, diabetes prevents the body from properly using sugar for energy.

Types Of Diabetes


About 1 in 5 Quebecers would be prediabetic. This condition is characterized by blood sugar levels that are higher than normal. But not enough to make a diagnosis of diabetes. This is an alarm signal. People with prediabetes are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the short term. Especially if they have other risk factors, such as being over 40 years of age, being overweight, being inactive, having family history of diabetes, etc.

Good news, with a change in lifestyle, prevention of diabetes is possible!

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that manifests itself in childhood. Adolescence or young adults and accounts for 10% of diabetes cases. People with type 1 diabetes depend on daily insulin injections for a living because their pancreas does not make it. To date, scientific research has not found an effective way to prevent this type of diabetes. To find out more…

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes (90% of cases) and usually occurs in adulthood. Several risk factors predispose an individual to this type of diabetes. Some people can have it without knowing it, given the very variable intensity of the symptoms. In some cases, lifestyle changes can prevent type 2 diabetes or delay its onset. Treatment of type 2 diabetes, like prevention, includes a healthy diet, regular physical activity, good stress management, and sometimes oral medication and / or insulin injections. To find out more…

To know your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, take the test!

Pregnancy diabetes

Also called gestational diabetes, this diabetes appears in the late 2nd and 3rd trimester. It is found in 2 to 4% of pregnancies. Gestational diabetes manifested by an increase in blood sugar which occurs only during pregnancy. It results from cell resistance to the action of insulin caused by hormones in the placenta. In 80% of cases, it goes away after childbirth. But the mother is then more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the years that follow.

How Does It Work?

Type 2 diabetes develops very gradually

The development of type 2 diabetes occurs in three stages.

  • First, the tissues become resistant to insulin. While this resistance normally appears with aging, it is aggravated by excess fat and obesity. We talk about insulin resistance.
  • Then, as the tissues have become insulin resistant, the body adapts. First, it tries to meet demand and allow cells to receive the glucose they need by increasing the production of insulin by the pancreas. We talk about hyperinsulinism.

But after several years of chronic hyperglycemia (ten to twenty years). This increase in insulin production ends up gradually depleting the pancreas. This organ can no longer secrete insulin in sufficient quantity to regulate the level of glucose in the blood. There is an insulin deficiency. This is called insulin deficiency.

Prevent Diabetes, Yes It Is Possible from risk factors of diabetes mellitus!

Preventing is taking action to prevent something from happening. In the case of type 2 diabetes, it is possible to take concrete action by changing your lifestyle. These actions can help prevent the disease, or at least delay its onset, as well as the associated complications.

  • Physical activity
  • Food
  • Weight Management
  • Stress
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol


How To Prevent from risk factors of diabetes mellitus?

Prevention is based on healthy living rules.

The onset of type 2 diabetes is closely linked to healthy living. The vast majority of people with this disease, over 80%, are overweight or obese.

In order to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes. It is essential to ensure from an early age. Throughout life to have a balanced diet and to practice physical activity on a regular basis.

It has been shown that in people at risk, a balanced diet, spread over three meals a day and increased physical exercise improve overall health and significantly reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. .


Insulin Treatment for Risk factors of diabetes mellitus

This is very important Insulin is part of the treatment for type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Insulin injections

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that progresses over time. When the pancreas can no longer secrete a satisfactory amount of insulin, despite oral or inject able anti-diabetic treatments. The made will prescribe an endocrinologist insulation in order to better control persistent hyperglycaemia. This treatment consists of providing the body with the necessary insulin. In order to restore the blood glucose level as well as possible.

Different types of insulin are on the market:


  • The rapid insulin’s (insulin effect after 35 to 60 minutes and duration of action of 5 to 8 hours)
  • The rapid-acting insulin analogues (effect after 15 to 35 minutes for 3 to 5 hours of action) L
  • The intermediate insulin’s (effect after 2 to 4 hours and duration of action of 12 to 24 hours). And slow acting insulin analogues (effect after 2 to 4 hours and duration of action of 24 hours). And finally premixed insulin’s (mixtures of insulin or rapid analogue and insulin intermediate).

For type 2 diabetics, who have become insulin-demanding (not corrected by the usual treatments). The insulin injection is done under the skin (subcutaneously) with a syringe which requires preparation. A pre-filled pen that works with cartridges or a portable continuous injection pump.

The preferred injection sites are the thigh, abdomen, buttocks or upper arm. Care should be taken to change the injection area a few centimeters to prevent it from swelling. In general, fast-acting insulin is injected preferentially into the abdomen, long-acting insulin into the thigh.

Be careful, if the tissue is thin, the needle can reach a muscle. The ideal is to use a short needle and to choose an area rich in fat.


How Does The Insulin Pump Work for improve risk factors of diabetes mellitus?

For some type 2 diabetics, insulin-requiring, dialectologists offer treatment with an insulin pump. This delivers insulin every 3 to 4 minutes. Allows the user to deliver additional doses when providing carbohydrates, especially during meals. It comes in the form of a box that can be placed on the belt or in a “fanny pack”. Insulin is delivered through a catheter implanted in the same areas as those for the injections. The insulin pump requires great vigilance to avoid infection. It does not exempt from self-monitoring of capillary glycemic.

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