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Dysentery causes | Definition,symptoms,dysentery causes and treatment

About dysentery causes

Do you want to know about dysentery causes? Read this full article about dysentery definition, symptoms, dysentery causes and treatment, and more.

Definition of dysentery

Dysentery is diarrhea accompanied by blood and/or mucus, and potentially fatal. This disease is common when sanitary conditions are poor, especially when food and water are not clean. Generally speaking, prevention involves improving hygiene conditions. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

Summary of dysentery:   dysentery causes

Many people have had gastroenteritis while on vacation in the tropics. These people may have had dysentery, a painful intestinal infection usually caused by bacteria or a parasite. Dysentery is characterized by diarrhea with blood, pus, and mucus, and is usually accompanied by pain.

There are two main types of dysentery. The first, amoebic dysentery, or intestinal amebiasis, is caused by a microscopic single-celled parasite that lives in the large intestine. The second type, bacillary dysentery, is caused by an invading bacterium.

Both types of dysentery are most evident in hot countries. Inadequate hygienic and sanitary conditions increase the risk of dysentery. As they allow the parasite or the responsible bacteria to spread through water or food contaminated with human feces. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

Dysentery Causes

Dysentery can have many causes. Bacterial infections are by far the most common cause of dysentery. These bacteria include the genera Shigella, Campylobacter, E. coli, and Salmonella. The frequency of each of these pathogens varies considerably in various regions of the world.

 Thus, the genus Shigella, responsible for shigellosis. Is more widespread in South America while Campylobacter is the predominant bacteria in Southeast Asia. Dysentery is rarely caused by chemical irritants or by intestinal worms.

Intestinal amoebiasis is caused by a protozoan-like parasite called Entamoeba histolytic a . The amoeba can stay in the large intestine (colon) for a long time. In the vast majority of cases, amebiasis does not cause any symptoms; only 10% of infected people get sick from it. Amoeba is uncommon, except in tropical regions where its prevalence is very high. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

 The infection is usually acquired after the ingestion of feces containing parasites excreted by another person. The risk of becoming infected with the parasite by consuming water. And the food is high when water for domestic use is not separated from wastewater.

Parasites can also enter through the mouth of the person who washes their hands with contaminated water. Besides, food can be contaminated if the person neglects to wash their hands before handling the food. Finally, fruits and vegetables can be contaminated if they are washed with polluted water. If they have been grown in soil fertilized with human excrement. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

Bacillary dysentery

The bacteria Shigella and Campylobacter, which cause bacillary dysentery, are found all over the world. They penetrate the intestinal lining, causing swelling, ulcers, and severe diarrhea containing blood and pus.

These infections are both spread by ingestion of water or food contaminated with fecal matter. People who live or travel in areas where poverty and overcrowding affect hygiene. And sanitation is at risk of exposure to invading bacteria.

The likelihood of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, or salmonellosis is higher in young children. (1 to 4 years old) who live in poverty.

Sex with anal contact can spread amoebic and bacillary dysentery. This is especially true if the reports include direct contact between the anus and the mouth. Contact between the mouth and an object (eg, a finger) that has been touched.  Or has had an infected person’s anus been introduced. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

 Symptoms and Complications of dysentery:  dysentery causes

The main symptom of dysentery is frequent diarrhea that is almost watery and tinged with blood, mucus, or pus. Other symptoms include:

  1.       Sudden onset of high fever and chills;
  2.       Abdominal pain;
  3.       Cramps and bloating in the abdomen;
  4.       Flatulence (gas);
  5.       A strong need to pass stool;
  6.       A feeling of incomplete bowel movement;
  7.       Loss of appetite;
  8.       Weight loss;
  9.       Headaches;
  10.   Fatigue;
  11.   Vomiting;
  12.   Dehydration.

Other symptoms may be intermittent and may include. A low recurring fever, abdominal cramps, increased intestinal gas, and fewer diarrhea’s with firmer stools. There may also be weakness or anemia, or weight loss over a prolonged period (wasting).

Relatively mild cases of bacterial dysentery can last 4 to 8 days while large cases can last 3 to 6 weeks. Amebiasis usually lasts 2 weeks. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

 

Symptoms of bacillary dysentery begin 2 to 10 days after infection

In children, the disease begins with fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Episodes of diarrhea can occur hourly, and the child’s stool may contain blood, mucus, and pus.

Vomiting can lead to rapid and severe dehydration which, if left untreated, can lead to shock and even death. Dehydration is manifested by extreme dryness of the mouth. A recess in the eyes and bad turgid of the skin. Children and babies are thirsty, and they are restless, irritable, and possibly lethargic. In addition, children may have sunken eyes and be unable to produce tears or urine. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

Complications of bacillary dysentery include delirium, seizures, and coma. An infection of this severity can be fatal within 24 hours. However, in the majority of cases, the infection resolves spontaneously and goes away without treatment.

People with amoebic dysentery may have other problems related to amebiasis. The most common complication is when the parasites reach the liver and form an amoebic abscess there. The person has a high fever, weight loss, and pain in the right shoulder or upper abdomen.

If the intestinal infection is particularly virulent, ulcers in the intestines can lead to intestinal perforation and death. In rare cases, the parasites can spread through the bloodstream and cause infection of the lungs, brain, or other organs. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

 Diagnostic of dysentery dysentery causes

If the doctor suspects dysentery, a stool test will usually be required. In the case of a bacterial infection such as shigellosis, stool culture allows the diagnosis to be established. Unfortunately, this method cannot be used in the majority of developing countries; the diagnosis is therefore made on the basis of clinical symptoms.

Amebiasis can often be diagnosed by identifying the parasite under a microscope. A blood test to measure antibodies helps confirm the diagnosis of amoebic dysentery or liver abscess.

It is very important to understand that the amoeba E. histolytic a has a true “twin sister” called Endameba despair. A harmless amoeba that looks identical under the microscope. However, E. despair never causes symptoms and does not require treatment.

In developing countries, no distinction is usually made between these two bacteria, therefore. People whose stools contain an amoeba receive treatment. Although it has not been established with certainty that the infection is responsible for the symptoms. In 90% of the cases where the stool contains an amoeba, it is the non-invasive and harmless amoeba E. despair. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

 Treatment and Prevention of dysentery 

The common treatment for dysentery caused by amebiasis is the administration of antiparasitics, such as metronidazole * and iodoquinol. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, or azithromycin are used to eradicate the organisms responsible for bacillary dysentery.

People with persistent diarrhea should see a doctor. All travelers should have an antibiotic. Such as ciprofloxacin, with them for one to three days treatment for sudden onset moderate or severe diarrhea. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol ®) could also be effective for some travelers. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

 In addition, they should take the anti-diarrheal drug loperamide to slow bowel function and prevent dehydration. Consult your doctor for precautions to take for children under 2 years old.

 It is very important to replace the fluid lost due to diarrhea. In mild cases, soft drinks, juice, and bottled water are sufficient. Severe diarrhea should be treated with solutions that contain electrolytes, such as potassium and salt, and sugar.

For severe diarrhea, commercial oral rehydration solutions are usually used. These solutions are available in sachets for easy transport. The person should try to drink enough fluids to produce colorless or light yellow urine every 3 to 4 hours.

 For the duration of the dysentery episode. It is best to stick to a diet free of gastric irritants and avoid dairy products. It is possible to prevent dysentery, to some extent, by having strict personal hygiene. Read more about Dysentery causes. 

People traveling or living in areas with high dysentery rates should take the following tips:

  1.       Always put on a condom for all sexual activity that includes anal contact, and wash thoroughly before and after sex.
  2.       Do not eat any food cooked under unsanitary conditions. Do not buy anything to eat from street vendors.
  3.       Eat only foods cooked at a high temperature. Do not eat cooked foods that have cooled down afterward.
  4.       Do not eat raw vegetables and avoid fruit without peeling. Peel the fruit yourself.
  5.       Drink only boiled or commercially bottled water. Use only ice made from purified water.
  6.       Use only bottled or boiled water for washing and cooking food, washing hands, and brushing teeth.
  7.       Consider bringing an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.       
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