What is anthrax?
Why need anthrax vaccin? The Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by Gram-positive bacteria in the form of rods known as anthrax name (“Bacillus anthracic”). The anthrax can be found naturally in the soil and usually affects domestic and wild animals worldwide.
About Anthrax Vaccine
A live attenuated animal vaccine (Sterne’s Vaccine) was developed in 1935 and is still in use. And derivatives of this strain represent almost all veterinary anthrax vaccines in use around the world today. For human use, three vaccines are available, a cellular vaccines (US, UK) and live spores (Russia).
The Russian vaccine is a live attenuated, non-encapsulated spore administered either by scarification or subcutaneously. It is believed to be reasonably well tolerated. And has shown some degree of protective efficacy against cutaneous anthrax in clinical field trials.
The Russian live vaccine was said to have been more effective than either British or American anthrax vaccines (AVP and AVA, respectively).
Today, Russia and China use live attenuated strains for their human vaccines. These vaccines can be administered by aerosol, scarification or subcutaneous injection. A Georgian / Russian vaccine against live anthrax spores (called STI) is also available.
Know more about Anthrax Vaccin
The American vaccine is called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) or BioTharax. This vaccine is produced from cultured filtrates of a UN encapsulated a virulent mutant of B. anthracic Volume. No living organism is present in this vaccine, resulting in protective immunity after 3 to 6 doses.
AVA is the only human anthrax vaccine cleared by the FDA in the United States. And is produced by Emergent Bio Solutions. When many substantive issues arose regarding the vaccine and its safety. The FDA after reviewing extensive scientific evidence. Determined in 2005 that AVA is safe and effective for the prevention of anthrax, regardless of the route of exposure. BioThrax is only available to people 18 to 65 years of age who are at increased risk of exposure to anthrax.
Other types of anthrax vaccines are in development in Israel and South Korea, and possibly other countries.
British AVP vaccine:
The vaccine is given by intramuscular injection and the primary injection of four single injections (3 injections 3 weeks apart followed by a 6 month dose) is followed by a single booster dose given once a year.
American AVA vaccine (BioThrax):
Five doses, over 18 months, with a booster dose each year thereafter for those who continue to be at increased risk of exposure as the duration of immunity is not well known . It is also given in combination with antibiotics as a primary series of three doses after exposure. Although the vaccine effectively protects against anthrax, it does not prevent all cases. One study showed that the anthrax vaccine protects about 9 out of 10 people vaccinated before exposure to the bacteria.
Why an Anthrax vaccin?
Anthrax disease, known in English as “anthrax”. A biological weapon has become particularly publicized following the terrorist attacks in the early 2000s . And an infection due to this bacterium, Bacillus anthracic, can lead to the death of the infected subject.
Injectable vaccines, already available on the Portuguese market, are not effective enough against anthrax inhalation. This causes an infection of the glandular apparatus which is accompanied by serious phenomena: delirium, fever, sepsis and which requires surgery.
These nasal vaccines promise better efficacy. Because they can prevent infections and diseases from developing as a result of anthrax contamination.
In some developing countries, anthrax has not yet been phased out. Infections via the respiratory tract, gastric tract or simply through the skin are the result of direct contact with infected animals or indirect contact through wool, bones or hair.
This discovery is therefore all the more important because infections are increasing in these developing countries. Due to the reuse of needles or the very limited number of drugs available. And due to lack of training of the local medical profession. This nasal vaccine has been tested in the lab beforehand. But more studies need to be done to confirm its effects in humans.
This discovery was part of a European project, led by the Portuguese Ministry of Defense and supported by the Foundation for Science and Technology. It will also be possible to apply this formula for other vaccines such as hepatitis B. The marketing of this vaccine aims to deter acts of bio-terrorism.
Are you finding anthrax vaccin on United States?
The US Food and Drug Organization (FDA) accepted a new suggestion for an anthrax vaccine on November 25, 2015. Already used since 1970 in the prevention of anthrax in people at risk of contracting this formidable bacterial disease. This vaccine, called Bio Anthrax ( Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed ) can now also be used after suspected or proven exposure to anthrax bacillus. Its use has been authorized for people aged 18 to 65, in combination with antibiotic treatment.
This vaccine is manufactured by Emergent Bio defense Operations Lasing LLC, based in Lansing, Michigan. It is the first vaccine for human use to receive approval via a specific procedure (Animal Rule). In this case when efficacy studies cannot be carried out on humans for obvious ethical reasons. It is in fact unthinkable to make individuals breathe the spores of this pathogenic agent. And then administer this so-called “post-exposure” vaccine to them.
The antibody levels evaluated after injection of the anthrax vaccine by the subcutaneous route in 200 volunteers (three different doses spread over 4 weeks) made it possible to determine that they were compatible with those providing satisfactory protection (of the order of 70%) in animals vaccinated and then exposed to the dangerous bacillus.
Anthrax vaccin on United States
Anthrax or anthrax is a disease, known since the 19th century, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracite which has a great capacity to form spores, which gives it a strong resistance to survive in the external environment. The disease can manifest itself in the cutaneous form (with wounds whose center becomes black, hence the name of the disease), pulmonary or digestive according to the mode of contamination.
The pulmonary form, which follows inhalation of spores, such as those that might be contained in trapped envelopes, is the rarest, but the most serious. The size of the spores allows them to penetrate to the deepest regions of the respiratory system.
The first signs of the disease are flu-like syndrome with fever, muscle pain, headache, dry cough. A second phase is marked by the onset of respiratory discomfort, severe infectious shock and hemorrhagic signs. In the absence of antibiotic treatment, death occurs in 95% of cases.
Anthrax vaccin Side effects
These vaccines are generally well tolerated and the side effects are usually mild and last only a few days. Reactions at the injection site include redness, swelling, pain or tenderness, lump or bruising, itching, muscle pain or temporary limitation of movement in the arm where the vaccine was given, pain headache and a feeling of tiredness.
Researchers develop new anthrax vaccin
American researchers have successfully tested an anthrax vaccine in mice. As they explain in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of September 1, the novelty of their product lies in the fact that it protects not only against the toxin released by the anthrax, but also against the bacillus itself.
This advance, if it could be applied to humans, would constitute an additional and effective weapon in the arsenal of defense against biological attacks.
The infectious agent, Bacillus anthracic, is particularly dangerous and occupies the first place in the list of biological toxicants of combat. After infecting a host, the bacillus reproduces at high speed in the body without being noticed by the immune system.
In fact, the invader goes unnoticed thanks to a “capsule” which surrounds it and which is made up of molecules called PGA (poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid). When it releases its toxin, and the first signs of the disease appear – it takes about six days of incubation – then there is generally very little time left to save the victim.
More about new anthrax vaccin
Currently, the only in effect prophylactic process is a 93% operative vaccine, the side effects of which, even though serious in the common of cases, look like in 30% of patients. Its action is targeted against a compound of the toxin called PA (for protective antigen), but does not act against the anthrax itself.
Julia Wang, a researcher at the Chaining Laboratory at Harvard Medical School in Boston, and her colleagues then combined PGA and PA in the same vaccine. They have also been successful in increasing the immune response elicited by PGAs, which are usually almost neutral.
During their experiments, mice vaccinated only against PGAs, and therefore against bacteria, were subjected to lethal doses of toxins. They died within 24 hours. In contrast, rodents immunized against AP only (with the already existing vaccine) as well as those protected with the new vaccine all survived the test.
Concretely, the performance of the new vaccine does not seem better than that of the classic product. Mice immunized against both bacilli and toxins nevertheless exhibited very high levels of antibodies against both compounds. Scientists conclude that this kind of double vaccine develops a synergy improving the total immune response against the disease.